Room 1: Introduction to the term
In this first room you will be able to learn about the associative keys that have marked the character of human settlements in different periods and cultures. Firstly, its strategic location as the main transit route to Andalusia and the richness of its lead and silver seams made this area an important crossroads, recording great events and epic battles, from the Second Punic Wars between Carthaginians and Romans in 218 BC, the Battle of Navas de Tolosa in 1212, or the Battle of Bailén in 1808.
We are in the foothills of Sierra Morena Oriental, an impressive natural wall which, from the highest point at the Collado de la Estrella at 1,300 m, smooths out into hillocks and peneplains of 500 to 600 m as it opens up at the apex of the Guadalquivir depression. It presents an outstanding variety and richness of ecosystems and landscapes, ranging from: the steepest mountain area, with impressive quartzite crags such as El Puntal, with its gallery forests and shady areas, as well as a great wealth of fauna, headed by the Iberian lynx and the golden eagle; passing through a thick scrubland and holm oak forest, which gives it that brownish tone that defines it as "brunette", home to the most common hunting species, rabbit, partridge, wild boar, ... on which hunting is practised and which form the traditional mountain gastronomy, with the speciality of partridge pâté; and, the landscape has been intensely deforested and converted into dehesa and pastureland, which corresponds to agricultural and livestock use (mainly olive groves, vegetable gardens, sheep, cows and fighting cattle).